Friday, February 7, 2020

The WWW Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The WWW - Essay Example rt documents that are specially formatted using a mark-up language that is referred to as HyperText Mark-up Language (HTML).This language supports links to other documents and graphics, video files and audio. By using the www, one can move from a document to the next by clicking on hotspots. A hotspot is an area of graphics object that helps in the activation of a function when clicked or selected. It is common in multimedia applications. It is important to understand that not all internet servers are classified as part of the www (In Bruck & In Rao, 2013). The internet is an information system of interlinked hypertext documents that are accessed via the internet, acting like a layer on top of the internet to make it more usable. It is a collection of web servers that host websites that in turn host text documents, pictures, videos and audios, linked by hyperlinks and URLs, usually accessed by web browsers from web servers. The World Wide Web (also WWW) is often assumed to be the same thing as the internet, a case that is untrue. The internet refers to a worldwide scheme of interconnected computer networks. The internet’s relationship with the World Wide Web is that the WWW is transferred using these networks, thus acting like a layer on top of the internet. When one connects their computer to the internet via an Internet Service Provider (ISP), they form a section of the ISP’s network that is linked to other networks that form part of the internet. The internet links several billion gadgets across the world, including computers and mobile phones and tablets. It is a giant network- within which there are other private, public, academic, business and government networks that are connected through a range of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. Web-surfing aside, the internet can also be used to share files (for example music and video files), computer programs, Usernet newsgroups, messages (Internet Relay Chats) as well as email messages

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Human Resources Essay Example for Free

Human Resources Essay There are quite a few differences in which the knowledge theory in different professional settings such as educational, human resources, service, etc. can be manifested. This human resource outline will incorporate three major contextual levels, with the first level addressing knowledge theory themes, the second relating aspects of that theme, and the third denoting the organizations to which they apply. According to the theory of knowledge that was introduced by Kant, it is a product of doubt and this theory helps us to distinguish right from wrong after examining the things that can be trusted and ones that cannot be trusted. Differentiating data and inferences is something debatable and the philosophers believe that this distinction is illusory and that all knowledge can either be immediate and derivative. (Theory of Knowledge. info, n. d. ). Definition of knowledge The way that we should use in order to impart knowledge is important. For this, we have to make the other person belief that knowledge is true, furthermore the words that we use to impart that information play a very vital role. The behavior of the people in the work settings can then be judged after which they analyze the truth in the logic and it should not be vague, however people in different work settings might react in a different manner. Data Data is basically raw information and knowledge can be a characteristic of behavior that can be mental or physical. Methods of Inference The important forms of inference for theory of knowledge are those in which we infer the existence of something having certain characteristics from the existence of something having certain other characteristics, furthermore there is a probability if the knowledge might be true or false as well as limitation of variety. We acquire knowledge from our surroundings, our past experiences, our perceptions about certain things, etc. Our understanding is also affected by how we take the things. One of the problems that occurs due to the theory of knowledge is what knowledge is or what it comes from or is there any such thing actually present or not, therefore this fact is somehow true that different professional settings have different theories of knowledge. Educational Setting The knowledge theory theme in the educational setting would have the basic need to impart knowledge to the people who come to seek education. People educate themselves for the sole motive of seeking more information and knowledge so that they can develop a core competency over the others. Examples of such a setting can be any school, college or university. Other than a formal educational institute, people also learn a lot at their work especially in the learning organizations. (Christner, Freeman Mennuti, 2005). Human Resource Setting The duty of the leader is to make innovation and the leader must know all the basic requirements of being an HR manager. He should have the skills of hiring and selecting new candidates after which he must evaluate which ones to select and these which ones to train once they are selected. Just like the strategy that is adopted by Wal-Mart does i. e. selecting the right candidate for the right position is one of the essential needs of an organization and after the selection; the leaders should encourage their juniors to suggest ideas that could lead to creativity and innovation. Furthermore, it is essential for the organization to reward its employees and to support along with proper amalgamation. This will ensure that the processes are applied to the organizations. This is because an organization is big or small; they need an HR department to manage their human resources well. Evans, 2003). Service Setting In the service sector, knowledge is the main thing on which these types of work setting exist. Services are intangible in nature and so they cannot be seen or touched, however they can be felt and the customer can measure the performance of a service by determining how much satisfied he is with the services that were being rendered to him. The US economy is mostly based on the services. Most of the US citizens work in the service sector. Examples can include doctors, consultants and teachers, etc. Conclusion While comparing the differences of how knowledge theory is manifested in educational, human resources, service settings, it is thus clear that all three require different theories and knowledge to operate. Educational setting enables us to examine how knowledge can be applied in an organization and this can be done by using knowledge management techniques that help in better decision making and better way of communication that leads to enhancement. Human resource setting is basically how to manage the human skills while service setting is about the ambience and physical environment in which a service occurs and is also called services cape.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Emersons Self Reliance vs. Douglass Narrative of the Life Essay

After reading both â€Å"Self Reliance,† by Ralph Waldo Emerson and â€Å"The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave,† by Frederick Douglass, one might notice a trend in what both writers regard as the key to happiness or self-fulfillment. Emerson and Douglass both imply that acquiring knowledge is what people should strive for throughout their lives. However, their perceptions on the kind of knowledge should be attained is where their ideas diverge; Emerson is the one that encourages one to develop the soul whereas with Douglass, it is the mind.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the primary issues that Emerson tried to convey was that one must follow what they believe is true for themselves and not listen to what other people think. He states, â€Å"It is easy in the world to live after the world’s opinion; it is easy in solitude to live after our own; but the great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps perfect sweetness the independence of solitude(Emerson 151).† One of the definitions of the word â€Å"world† is â€Å"human society.† The word â€Å"opinion† means â€Å"a view, judgment, or appraisal formed in the mind about a particular matter.† By putting these words together, Emerson is implying that the â€Å"world’s opinion† is the general point of view accepted by most of society. Emerson also uses the word, â€Å"solitude† which means, â€Å"the quality or state of being alone or remote from society.† By also using the word â€Å"solitude† in this sentence, he shows a contrast between the majority (society), and the individual. What Emerson suggests is that if one can live in a world full of people who think a certain way because they were taught to believe that way, but still hold your own ground and follow what you believe, you are a great person.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Douglass also believes in following what is true for oneself despite what people around him think. This is evident when he says, â€Å"But I should be false to the earliest sentiments of my soul, if I suppressed the opinion. I prefer to be true to myself, even at the hazard of incurring the ridicule of others, rather than to be false, and incur my own abhorrence (Douglass 75).† The word â€Å"true† means â€Å"being that which is the case rather than what is manifest or assumed,† and the word â€Å"false† means â€Å"inconsistent with the facts.† Douglass uses both of these words to convey the fact that he would rather believe his own thoughts and suffer the wrat... ... and unhappy (Douglass 78).† Learning how to read was as big a step towards freedom for Douglass as it was back. It made him aware of the circumstances but it also made him realize how difficult it would be for him to ever find himself a free man. However, knowledge overpowers ignorance in the sense that his masters could never take his ability to read away from him and because Douglass now knew his condition, he knew that he deserved a better life.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Both Emerson and Douglass had a huge impact on those who read their work. Their messages were both similar and different in their own ways. Emerson pushed the idea of unification with God through the soul while Douglass stood behind the development of the mind with the ability to read. However, both Emerson and Douglass were for non-conformity and individualism. They were very much concerned with the growth of the individual, whether it be in mind or through the soul. Works Cited Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin Group, 1982. Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Selections from Ralph Waldo Emerson. USA: Riverside Editions, 1957.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Reducing Minimum Legal Drinking Age to Decrease Alcohol Related Consequences Among Youth

Angel Gallegos Source Analysis Essay Rhet 104 Drinking Age At 18? How do we react when young adults are acting obnoxious and completely out of control due to extreme alcoholic consumption? Over the years tensions and arguments have risen to many peoples understanding about whether or not the minimum drinking age should be lowered to the age of 18 years old. This major topic has popped up in the heads of many U. S citizens over the years due to the facts that have popped up by many science based and informational research programs. Where has most of the illegal age drinking been taking place?According to the two authors of the scholarly reviewed article, â€Å"Will Increasing Alcohol Availability By Lowering The Minimum Legal Drinking Age Decrease Drinking And Related Consequences Among Youths? † Henry Wechsler and Toben F. Nelson, they state that in college is where most young adults take on the role of binge-drinkers and take a major advantage of their ability to consume alco hol illegally. The real question here is, â€Å"should the drinking age be lowered? And why? † and we will see the methodology of both authors in their opinions on towards lowering the drinking age.Both authors’ main argument in the reviewed article is obviously to lower the drinking age. To lower the drinking age would mean so much to the nation in their opinion because of the facts that have been showing up in the U. S. According to the authors based on research that has been made, alcohol tops the list of causes for deaths and injuries in young adults. It is sad to see that this information is very true up to this day and both authors prove it very well by showing images of the information they are stating from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System.This image in the article seems credible because its coming from a administration in which they strictly focus on the fatalities caused by underage drinking over the past 20 -30 years and it is clearly visible that back when the drinking age was set at 18 years there were fewer deaths then when it was raised to 21 years and so since then only assumptions and arguments have been made to why those facts pop up. This evidence is effective to us the readers because if we were really interested in the topic we would be able to see the facts on the image shown on the article and be able to argue the age differences in the drinking ages.The authors give information on how in college is where the heavy binge drinking takes place for most of young adults. Based on a national survey, stated by the authors, found out that 1 out of every 10 students that consumed alcohol illegally underage reported experiencing any bad consequences for breaking the liquor/alcohol policies given at their respected schools. I believe that this is ineffective in a way because if the government is imposing the drinking age to be at 21 then why aren’t they acting upon all the und erage drinkers.It’s not like they don’t know how much alcohol consumption takes place at colleges. This is where their next argument arose and gave the knowledge about the â€Å"The Amethyst Initiative Argument†. They give reference to this petition, which involves presidents and chancellors of over 135 colleges in the signing of lowering the drinking age to 18 years of age due to various college drinking experiences. I find this petition to be really interesting to me because of the way they use their words to argue that the drinking age should be lowered.The authors use words like â€Å"not working† to target the fact that the drinking age at 21 is not â€Å"preventing† young adults from consuming alcohol illegally. The credibility in everything they say can be easily accounted for but overall there could be some authorial bias coming from the presidents and chancellors of these colleges because of the fact that it is hard to reasonably support t he overall position of drinking but overall it does not seem to carry over the authors themselves because they are simply stating the information given by the presidents and chancellors.In this petition they state that 18 year old through the age of 20 year olds have driven underage drinking underground in unmonitored areas and it is bad to for the nation because only the underage drinkers are aware of what is going on but in reality they really don’t know what can be the outcome of the night because they have as much access to as much liquor they would please. They argue how the government wants to reduce fatalities in the nation and underage drinking so why not lower the drinking age to 18 and let young dults do wise decisions on their own while still being able to come out to the bars and drink responsibly in a more protected and controlled environment as oppose of their unmonitored areas. Lastly in the petition they say a sentence that caught my attention over all in whic h I believe they could evaluate more as authors to the article and this sentence basically showed the comparison of Western Europe’s young adults ranging from 18-20 year olds drink more responsibly and they make that assumption because the drinking age in Europe is lower then the drinking age here at the United States.I feel that both authors could’ve made an effort to support this assumption better by going to other resources and getting information in where they show some type of facts that can be used to argue this statement against the drinking age and not only in comparison to Europe but to all the other countries as well, but other then that the authors have cited and backed up their information well even though a bias point of view can be seen because maybe other people view the idea of consuming alcohol completely different. In reflection to the article I believe I stand with the opinion or views of those who want to lower the drinking age.Not because I am unde rage and just view it as I want to legally buy drinks faster but I see it as a completely different way. I think that if the United States government is able to give drivers licenses to young adults, why not be able to give them the choice to drink as well. Driving is a big responsibility in which any person has to take on and I believe that if they trust a young adult by making a choice to drive a vehicle and place their life in danger every day they do it then why not give them the trust to drink responsibly as well.I feel that given that right it will ultimately lower binge drinking because they wont be doing it illegally. I support the views of the authors as well because even though it might come in a bias way at the end of it, it really does not because we see that they will never be able control alcohol related problems but there are always ways to try and prevent more from breaking out. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/detail? vid=4&sid=8db21b3f-0745-49b5-b020-7285e730bd01%4 0sessionmgr114&hid=128&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=50616981

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2964 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Corporate social responsibilities fall into four main areas. These are economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary responsibilities. These four responsibilities together form the total of a companys social responsiveness. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility" essay for you Create order A companys ethical and social responsibilities are increasingly considered as important as economic and legal responsibilities, with managers and organisations typically finding themselves involved in several such issues simultaneously (Daft 2006). Regester and Larkin (2005) state that CSR is an emerging, as yet poorly defined, process used by some as a fashion statement through glossy reports and websites, and others as a potential framework for demonstrating a more responsible approach to doing business. Over the past two decades, the pressure upon business to become accountable and perform a social and environmental role has increased dramatically. Incidents such as the Union Carbide accident in Bhopal, India and the Chernobyl nuclear power station disaster in the Ukraine helped put corporate responsibility for environmental hazards on the international agenda. Western industrialised governments responded to such incidents, and established legal and regulatory frameworks for co rporate responsibility. Pearlson and Saunders (2004) state that social contract theory means that the social responsibilities of corporate managers require to consider the needs of society together with the corporations business arrangements. Society bestows legal recognition on a corporation to allow it to employ social resources toward given ends. The meaning of this contract is that, in allowing a corporation to exist, society demands at a minimum that it creates more value to the society than it consumes. In this way, society changes the corporation to enhance its welfare by satisfying particular interests of consumers and workers in exploiting the advantage of the being a corporation. There are two components relevant to the social contract. The social welfare term arises from the belief that corporations must provide greater benefits than their associated costs or society would not permit their creation. Similarly the justice component holds that corporations must pursue pr ofits legally, without fraud or deception, and avoid activities that injure society. Maslows theory of motivation of human needs covers five headings. In relation to its application in industry, the physiological needs are the basic ones to satisfy the requirements to be fed, watered and stay alive, the safety needs are the common desire for employment with security, pension and insurance, the social needs are those of belonging to a group, The esteem needs are a desire for reputation, prestige, recognition appreciation and importance. The final need is the need for self-actualisation, or self-fulfilment which is the tendency for a person to fulfil their potential. Applying Maslows theory to industry requires the acceptance that work should provide at least the financial means for pursuing the all-important goal of self-actualisation outside the organisation, namely in leisure activities and family life (Adair, 2006). There is often conflict between codes of conduct and the pr actical realities of applying what Western countries believe they constitute and their application in other cultures. Porter (2008) argues that there is a link between competitive business advantage and CSR. The CSR field remains strongly imbued with a moral imperative. In some areas, such as honesty in filing financial statements and operating within the law, moral considerations are easy to understand and apply. It is in the nature of moral obligations to be absolute mandates, however, while most corporate social choices involve balancing competing values, interests and costs. Googles recent entry into China, for example has created an irreconcilable conflict between its US customers abhorrence of censorship and the legal constraints imposed by the Chinese government. Very recent events have shown that codes of conduct can be cynically ignored when they conflict with political attitudes towards criminal activities. As reported in 2010 Google has decided to end censorship in China following malicious hacking attacks in China against Chinese human rights activists who had used social networking to further their cause. This was seen as blatantly ignoring the obligation of all nations to keep its part of the Internet secure, and Chinas failure to criminalise such activities ( 2010). Economic The responsibility of a business is to produce the goods and services that society wants and to maximise profits for its owners and shareholders. The economist Milton Friedman held the view that the corporation should be operated on a profit-oriented basis, with its prime mission to increase its profits while staying within the rules of the game. However, this profit-maximising view is no longer considered an adequate criterion of performance in much of the Western world. This approach means that economic gain is the only social responsibility and can lead companies into difficulties (Daft 2006). There can be economic benefits in the application of codes of conduct, either directly, or by avoidance of potential cost at a later stage. Keinert (2008) states that proven benefits good CSR can bring include the achievement of competitive advantage, better reaching market segments like ethical consumers and socially responsible investors, and enhanced opportunities for strategic allia nces or other partnership as major business opportunities. One source of major competitive advantage possibly achievable through CSR is the lowering of operational costs. This can be accomplished through saving disposal costs of IT or other equipment when donating it. Also investments in environment-friendly or otherwise socially beneficial business processes or products can incur cost advantages in case they later become either regulated, or an industry standard. Esty and Winston (2006) believe that competitive advantages are becoming ever more difficult to establish and maintain because the traditional points of competitive differentiation are being constricted on all sides. Companies must find new ways to break out of the pack and those who dont will struggle to keep up in the marketplace. One opportunity is a refinement of overall business strategy by introducing an environmental sub-strategy. The business world is waking up to an inevitable and unavoidable truth that the eco nomy and the environment are deeply intertwined. All goods depend on nature and the services it provides, and without careful stewardship, natural resource constraints will encroach on growing number of companies and industries. Concern about these trends is driving laws, rules, and expectations that will further restrain business. Major companies like Wal-Mart and General Electric have launched major environmental initiatives. Vogel (2005) argues that many people are attracted to firms whose values and behaviour are similar to theirs and the leadership and employees of successful companies often share a common vision. A survey in 2004 of more than 800 MBAs from leading North American and European business schools showed that ninety-even percent would be willing to forgo an average of fourteen percent of their expected income in order to work with an organisations with a better reputation for corporate social responsibility and ethics. Legal Businesses are expected to fulfil their economic goals within a legal framework which recognises what society thinks of as appropriate corporate responsibility. The legal requirements are those which are imposed by local and governmental authorities. For example intentionally manufacturing defective goods of submitting a bill for work which is not carried out is illegal (Daft 2006). Corrupt practices can be ignored, or even connived at, by unscrupulous management and in some cases aided or at least connived at by political interests. These corrupt practices can and do bring about the downfall of seemingly successful businesses. Forster (2005) argues that historically, unethical, corrupt and illegal practices have been part and parcel of doing business for centuries, in spite of the considerable damage that such activities have caused. In more recent times, following the notorious Enron bankruptcy case in 2001, it was found that the senior managers of Enron had been lining their own pockets prior to declaring the company bankrupt. The collapse of Enron also led to the extinction of one of the worlds biggest accounting and consulting firms, Arthur Andersen and the company was found guilty of shredding documents in 2002, and several other criminal trials involving Andersen employees, who were supposed to have audited Enron prior to its collapse, were the subject of court cases. An even larger collapse was the case of the telecommunications company Worldcom, with nearly forty billion dollars unaccounted for and 17, 000 redundancies in 2002, where again, the senior managers of this company had also been lining their own pockets prior to declaring the company bankrupt, and several politicians in the US had sold off their stock in the company prior to its collapse. Ethical Demonstrating ethical responsibility means that organisation decision takers should act with equity, fairness, and impartiality, respect the rights of individuals, and only alter treatment of individuals when relevant to the goals and tasks of the organisation. Unethical behaviour occurs when decisions enable an individual or company to gain at the expense of other people or society as a whole (Daft 2006). According to Torrington et al (2008) the key issue with ethical codes is the extent to which they are supported by the people to whom they apply. They are not rules that can be enforced by penalties for non-compliance. It is necessary that they are understood, appreciated and willingly honoured by the great majority of those who are affected. There will then be considerable social pressure of the few who do not wish to comply. A disadvantage is that such a code may not be equally administered or supported, especially in the case of international companies. This is illustrated by the case of an American company with a high-profile commitment to positive action to seek out and employ members of disadvantages groups, reinforced by a program of employment and development for minorities. In The UK, however, was widely ignored on the basis that it was not an obligation on the part of management. In this way, it is clear that ethical responsibility can be interpreted in differing ways by different cultures. May et al (2007) state that when a company voluntarily elects to be responsible and by its activities, goes beyond what is strictly required of them, then that constitutes ethical conduct. It exercises its social responsibility in a committed manner, and, with that, demonstrates not only that it considers itself responsible, but also that it recognises the importance of the others around it. Among the major benefits of this type of ethical behaviour, the World Bank mentions the following advantages for companies: it generates a social license to function; it provides sustainable development that improves reputations ad trademarks, yields more efficient operations, boosts sales and preserves customer loyalty, and provides greater capacity to attract and retain employees; it creates new business opportunities; it attracts and retains investors and partners; it avoids crises from bad conduct; it generates government support; and it creates relational and political capital. The issue of ethical behaviour and its acceptance has been radically highlighted by the growth of unregulated communications in the form of the Internet. The massive increase in the use of the Internet by companies have led some to develop a code of ethics regarding non-work-related Internet use, and a policy covering Internet usage and making it known to all employees. Without a formal policy, it is much more difficult to enforce desired behaviour and deal with violators (Turban 2006). Accepted work conditions and practices differ markedly on a global basis. O ne disadvantage occurs when a major corporation in an advanced economy does business in a developing country; it may have established a level of corporate virtue consistent with the host countrys expectations, but employs workers in Southeast Asia in accordance with local customs and practices. This is the case for Nike, who run athletic footwear plants in Southeast Asia and has opened themselves up to changes of operating sweatshops, and averaging down its level of corporate responsibility. Once an image is established, it is difficult to dislodge in the minds of the public (Werther and Chandler 2006). Mullins (2008) states that personal integrity and individual values are important elements in ethical decision-making at work, but the increasingly common company, professional or industry codes of conduct may also provide support and guidance. These ethical resources do not always provide a clear and comfortable guidance, and sometimes, people in organisations will experience ten sion between the conflicting demands of their own personal values and the demands placed on them by the organisation. If these conflicts become intolerable and cannot be resolved through normal means, then an individual may decide to become a whistleblower in the public interest, by taking the high-risk approach of placing the problem in the public domain for resolution. Codes of conduct can help to reduce the risk of painful situations like this by providing a published set of values to which an individual can appeal, rather than taking the risk wholly personally. Discretionary Discretionary responsibility is purely voluntary and is guided by a companys desire to make social contributions not mandated by economics, law, or ethics. Discretionary activities include generous philanthropic contributions that offer no payback to the company and are not requested by those who are recipients (Daft 2006). Fisher and Lovell (2006) state that corporations are increasingly subject to scrutiny via international codes of conduct, such as the UN Global Compact, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and development (OECD)s Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, the Ethical Trading Initiative as well as various industry-specific or issue-specific codes, such as the Sweatshop Code and the Breastmilk Substitutes Code. However, while the number of codes increases, concerns regarding the efficacy of such codes also grow. Christian Aid provided three case studies of alleged double standards, hypocrisy and /or duplicity by, respectively, Shell and the continuing prob lems of the people on the Niger delta from Shells exploration there; British American Tobacco (BAT) and the medical ailments of the tobacco pickers of Kenya and Brazil; and Coca Cola and its alleged use (or misuse) of a village water source in India. Each of these companies claims high ethical standards. They each produce a social accountability report and BAT and Shell have been recognised as being leaders in social reporting. However, the form of voluntary reporting and accountability argued for on the Global Compact has been criticised by Christian Aid as, at best, of little significance, but, at worst, providing a faà §ade of social responsibility for its members, while behind the faà §ade little appears to change. Pride et al (2008) argue that social responsibility is the recognition that business activities have an impact on society and the consideration of that impact on decision-making. In the first few days after hurricane Katrina hot New Orleans, Wal-Mart delivered $2 0 million in cash, 100 truckloads of free merchandise, and food for 100,000 meals. The company also promised a job elsewhere for every one of its workers affected by the catastrophe. Social responsibility costs money, but what is not so obvious is that social responsibility is good for business. Customers eventually find out which companies are acting responsibly and which are not. And as a result they spend their money on a product made by a company that is socially responsible just as easily as they avoid a company that does not display this behaviour. The philanthropic approach has produced a competitive advantage for the Body Shop business. The main products of the Body Shop are cosmetics, in an industry that has been strongly criticised for animal testing of products, its use of ingredients that have questionable origins in terms of environmental damage, and its negative effect on womens self-esteem through marketing. To counter this, the Body Shop has designed its products around a strategy of no animal testing, fair trade with third-world suppliers of raw materials, environmental concern in product development and packaging and products that keep their promises and whose prices reflect their contents and manufacturing costs more that inflated brand name prices. In addition, the Body Shop donates parts of its profits to various causes and idealistic organisations. All of these elements have been successful in attracting loyal customers who would not consider buying a pricey branded product that might have been tested on animals (Andersen 2004). Schaffer et al (2008) relates that the Levi Straus Co. Global Sourcing and Operating Guidelines are generally recognised as the first code of conduct created by a multinational corporation and made applicable to its foreign suppliers, and their basic ideas could be applicable to any firm that does business through a global supply chain or with a supplier or contractor in a developing country. These guidelin es represent an effort by Levi Straus to control the activities of more than five hundred overseas contractors and suppliers. in the 1990s the company discovered that twenty-five percent or more of its subcontractors had abused employees in some fashion, and one plant in Bangladesh was using child labour. The response by Levi Straus was to develop guidelines to ensure that its contactors could not do it again. Levi Straus provides its suppliers with manuals and training programs to implement their standards. The company also developed its Country Assessment Guidelines, which are factors to be considered in deciding in which countries they will do business, including whether the human rights record of the country would be damaging to the Levi Straus corporate reputation or brand image. Conclusions There is increasing pressure, particularly for companies in the Western world, or those based in the West, to adopt codes of conduct which affect their economic, legal, ethical and discretionary actions as they pursue their business objectives. There is a proliferation of such codes, and while there are penalties for non-compliance in the economic and legal areas, adhering to ethical and discretional codes can vary with the cultural expectations of the areas in the world where they are employed. This is illustrated by difficulties experienced by international companies in conducting business activities in the underdeveloped areas. There are significant competitive advantages to be gained by the adoption of codes of conduct, but equally, there are pitfalls in that they may conceal hypocrisy on the part of companies who espouse their adherence to them. Deliberate flouting of widely-accepted ethical codes and responsibilities is also demonstrated by some national governments.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Ketamine Helps Paramedica Presented with Difficulties of...

Trauma patients often present paramedics with difficult situations to handle. These patients most likely have multiple injuries that the paramedic must treat including internal and external injuries. The main concern in treating trauma patients is controlling the pain that the patient may be experiencing while not compromising the patients hemodynamic and respiratory state. The most common drugs used in pain management in the pre-hospital setting often cause undesirable side effects, such as respiratory depression, hypotension, apnea, and bradycardia. All of these side effects combined with a trauma patient who is already compromised can lead to a much bigger issue. What if there was a drug that could treat the pain, calm the patient, and not cause the nasty side effects of traditional pain management? Ketamine provides us the answer to this question. Ketamine was developed in the 1960’s as a dissociative anesthetic. In 1970 the federal government for human use approved it.5 It became very popular as a battlefield anesthetic because of its quick onset and ability not to knock out a patient’s respiratory drive. The first evidence of illicit drug abuse of ketamine was in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s on the west cost of the US.2 It can be know on the street as â€Å"Special K, Vitamin K, Jet, and Super Acid.†8 In its illegal form it is often used as a date rape drug.2 Ketamine is a NMDA receptor antagonist, it works to antagonize or inhibit the action of

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Globalization The Economic And Financial Integration Of...

1.0 Introduction 1.1 Background The end of 20th century, more and more business are growing constantly, business are wanted to go global by expanding their business overseas. In today’s global market it reflects among the measures of economic activity going in the world economy. For the worldwide economy to be existing a rising share of the financial actions occurring between countries to country who live in distinctive nations. It can involve trade, investments, production labour and also viewing its economic situations in nations and between nations. Globalisation has similar content as global market but it is more abroad. Globalization can be considered as the growing economic and financial integration of economies around the globe.†¦show more content†¦The United States in known for having one of the largest luxury market worldwide. It had been investigated, United States extravagance deals have been generally quarter of the global sales on luxury goods. As the economy in the sales has been de veloping for as long as two years however because of having a high unemployment rate it frustrates the Business as shopper are not eager to spend. In the earlier year 2014, the US economy is recuperating pleasantly after because of a delayed time of modest growth. Distress esteem sales of luxury goods in the US have expanded every year since 2010. After a top twofold digit development in 2011 had been enrolled yet due the eased off because of unemployment, extravagance merchandise are not making much on deals but rather prone to ascend in 2014. In 2014 the development rate has expanded, due the interest from residential customers and visitor going to the US. This will permit extravagance merchandise industry to have noteworthy advantage from an increment on purchasers wages increase specially the US ladies who are the ones will build the business deals and development of extravagance products. 1.2 Aim The purpose of this report is to analyse the level of market demand for Amari Kartini’s luxury products in the United States of America. This report aims to address three main sections which are, Identification and justification of the